Determining Cognitive Levels
The discussion of a person’s memory and communication of factual data and understanding basic conversations has become more and more prevalent as the general population age expands. More people live longer for a variety of reason than they did in the past. Historically, there has been a segment of people that have lived a 100 years plus or minus. Today we have large numbers of them in the 80’s and 90’s with increasing numbers reaching 100 and beyond.
These individuals for the most part in better physical condition than their minds As many as 15% of these senior citizens do not match the standard deviation score for their age level population. Their minds have declined at a faster rate than their age association. Each age group has a recognized normal standard of deviation from the original birth norm standard of cognitive level, an accelerated aging rate, followed by an abnormal rate of decline of cognitive skills. Their cognitive status is scaled from age associated memory impairment, A.A.M.I., where mild cognitive impairment, M.C.I., begins. This progression of deterioration leads to further abnormal rates of decline, A.D., called Alzheimer’s Disease.
Cognitive test score levels allow for clinical assessments as to the normality of the patient’s mind have been established. This is based upon the standard deviation, SD, A age associated memory impairment score is indicated when the are below the 17th percentile S.D. of a healthy active population say, 20 to 30 years old. A.A.M.I. could be found in 45% to 55% of the population 50 to 60 years old. When a person is found in the A.A.M.I. mid range they are three times more likely to progress to Dementia
If the mild cognitive impairment is below 1.5 S.D. and progressively continues to decline at a rate of 10- 15% per annum, the probability of Alzheimer’s Disease is more than 50% by the time they are in their 80.s.
Alzheimer’s Disease is initially an insidious progressive condition with a 20 to 40 year cloaked presence until it manifest itself.
The arrival of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and It’s PET scans have aided in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Causes of Cognitive impairment
1. Cerebral blood flow decrease.
2. Cerebral blood volume decrease.
3. Cerebral metabolism rate decrease.
4. Cerebral metabolism rate of O2 decrease
5. Increase oxidative stress.
6. Deficit in calcium regulation
7. Deficit in cholinergic regulation.
8. Deficit in mitochondrial function.
9. Inflammation reduces immune system function.
10. Glutamate induced NMDA [N-methyl-D-asparticacid] reception leading to over activation.
11. Subsequent calcium mobilization.
12. Cellular overload
13. Increase cortisol production.
A-beta plagues [amyloid-beta ] leads to oxidative stress and perpetuates more plaguing.
Increase acetylcholine inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down and reduces the enzymes level allowing for improved synaptic levels because of the higher volume of acetylcholine.
Aging mitochondria membranes thin with aging that results in polarization of the positive and negative balance impairing the nerve impulse patterns.